Science communication for non-scientific audiences in food security (agriculture, animal science, veterinary science, food policy, food safety and related field), environment (climate change, sustainability, natural resource management and related field), sustainable development and system thinking.
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Role of Methane in Global Warming
Although the proportion of CH4 in the atmosphere is very low
compared to CO2, the relative contribution of CH4 to
global warming is high due to the high radiative forcing contributed by this
gas. The global atmospheric concentration of methane reached 1774 ppb in 2005 compared
to 1732 ppb in the early 1990s and only 715 ppb in the pre-industrial era
(figure). This increase in atmospheric concentration of CH4 is
responsible for radiative forcing of +0.48 ± 0.05 W m–2which is second only to that contributed by CO2 due to CH4 having approximately 25 times higher global warming potential
(GWP)compared to CO2.
Therefore, reduction in CH4 emission is more effective and
probably an easier strategy than reducing CO2emission.
Figure: Trend in the increase in
atmospheric concentration of CH4over
the last 10,000 years and since 1750 (inset) with corresponding radiative
forcing. Source: IPPC (2007)
by Yadav Sharma Bajagai "Food Security" is one of major elements of development and poverty alleviation and has been the goal of many international and national public organizations. The issue is so important that according to the state of food insecurity in the world 2012 published by FAO around 870 million people (out of which 852 million from developing countries) are estimated to have been undernourished in the period 2010-12. Although the phrase "Food Security" is being used widely, the definition and concept of food security is elusive and being evolved and expanded over time.
Background Household food deficiency due to low agricultural productivity, limited livelihood opportunities, inefficient food distribution system, weak market linkage, poor infrastructure and lack of awareness among general public about healthy food habit are some of the development challenges in Nepal. Within the country western Nepal suffer more from poverty and hunger with 37% of the people living below the poverty line compared to the national average of 25.16%. Similarly, productivity of major crops is significantly lower than the national average which is already among the lowest in South Asia. Per capita consumption of animal products (32 litres of milk, 7.5 kg of meat and 6.4 eggs per capita per annum) is among the lowest in the region hunger indices pointing to an extremely alarming situation. Household food balance (result of food inflow, household production, household consumption and outflow) is negative almost throughout the year in the region. Government of
by Yadav Sharma Bajagai 1 Introduction Being member of different international organizations, Nepal has many food safety related obligations to comply with rules and regulations of those organizations. Food safety related issues started to become matter of increased concern and one of the priority areas of the government after the country has become member of the world trade organization (WTO) in 2004. Being a developing country, food chains are generally long in developing countries like Nepal as compared to those in developed countries due to poor infrastructure which makes the food more vulnerable to be contaminated with harmful agents (microorganism and chemicals). In addition, infrastructures related to technical regulation, conformity assessment and safety of food are still in developing phase which requires more focus and investment for better functioning. Similarly, Inspections and regulation of food related business are challenging and difficult due