- The US, Denmark, Norway and France are the most food-secure countries in the world. A combination of ample food supplies, high incomes, low spending on food relative to other outlays, and significant investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) put these countries at the top of the 105-nation index.
- The food supply in advanced countries averages 1,200 calories more per person, per day, than in low-income economies. The average individual needs 2,300 calories per day to live a healthy and active life. Among wealthy nations, there is enough food for each person to eat 1,100 calories above that benchmark; in low-income countries, national food supplies fall, on average, 100 calories short of it.
- Several of the sub-Saharan African countries that finished in the bottom third of the index, including Mozambique, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Niger, will be among the world’s faster growing economies during the next two years. Although still poor in absolute terms, rising incomes suggest that these countries may be in a position to address food insecurity more forcefully in coming years.
- Several policy and nutrition related indicators, including access to financing for farmers, the presence of food safety net programmes, protein quality and diet diversification, are highly correlated with overall food security. Governments may be better able to influence improvements in these areas than in more structural indicators, such as per-capita income.
- China experienced the least volatility of agricultural production during the last 20 years, and three North African countries—Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria —among the most. Countries with wide variances in annual farm output were considered less food secure and scored less well in the index.
- The most food secure nations score less well for micro-nutrient availability. Of the top ten countries in the index overall, only France ranks in the top ten for micro-nutrient availability. For many advanced economies, it is among their weakest scores. Germany, for example, ranks 10th overall but 43rd for micro-nutrients. The low ranks are primarily owing to limited availability of vegetable iron in national food supplies, as measured in the FAO Food Balance Sheets.
- Landlocked countries fared nearly as well as those with a coastline. The 22 landlocked countries in the index on average scored only seven points lower than those that are not landlocked. This suggests that although small countries without seaports may be particularly vulnerable to food shocks, being landlocked in itself does not translate into a significantly greater degree of food insecurity.
Science communication for non-scientific audiences in food security (agriculture, animal science, veterinary science, food policy, food safety and related field), environment (climate change, sustainability, natural resource management and related field), sustainable development and system thinking.