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Universal agreement on climate change – not too far!


Delegates from 194 countries negotiated over a week and finally succeeded to prepare the negotiating text for the 2015 Universal Agreement on Climate Change to be held in Le Bourget, France from 30 November to 11 December 2015.  

On Friday (13th February 2015), delegates participating Geneva Climate Change Talks finalised the content of the new agreement which includes the text about mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and capacity building. 

 
Participants of the Climate Change Talk in Geneva. Photo credit:  UN Photo/Jean-Marc Ferré

The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has set the objective of the 2015 conference to achieve a universal and binding agreement on climate for the first time after 20 years of UN negotiations by the nations all over the world. Achievement of Geneva talk over the last week is a key milestone towards this objective of UNFCCC. This has given a hope that we are moving in right direction in spite of being very slow. 

According to a press release by UNFCCC, Christiana Figures, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC has expressed her happiness as “I am extremely encouraged by the constructive spirit and the speed at which negotiators have worked during the past week. We now have a formal negotiating text, which contains the views and concerns of all countries. The Lima Draft has now been transformed into the negotiating text and enjoys the full ownership of all countries”. 

The press release further added that “The text was constructed in full transparency. This means that although it has become longer, countries are now fully aware of each other’s positions”.

According to UN News Centre “The next step is for negotiators to narrow down options and reach consensus on the content. Formal work and negotiations on the text will continue at the Climate Change Conference in Bonn in June with two further formal sessions planned for later in the year, as well as ministerial-level meetings that will take place throughout 2015”.

The negotiating text is available on UNFCCC website. 


Quick Tips on Food Safety of Turkey Meat


By Maria P. Omega

Back in 2012, Canada produced around 20.6 million turkeys for consumption. Therefore, the business of this lean meat is important until now. But unfortunately, there are currently Avian Influenza (AI) outbreaks in British Columbia (BC), Canada. There have been ten turkey farms in Chilliwack, BC infected by Avian Influenza (possibly H5N2, H5N8 or H7N3  types). So, the turkey meats are ultimately contaminated by this virus and have been rejected by some importer countries such as Taiwan, China and others. However, CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) and/or BC Agriculture closed the possible suspects of contaminated turkey farms immediately, to reduce the AI spread and infections. This is important because turkey meat is a lean healthy one and protein source for human and dog/pet consumption. On the other hand, other turkey farms, apart from BC, are not contaminated such as from Alberta or Manitoba Canada and the U.S. In terms of, the food safety originally from the farm, the consumers also have to be responsible for the storage and the cooking temperature. 

How to make balanced and healthy diets for children using basic food groups



By Maria P. Omega

The food groups consist of fruits, vegetables, protein, grains and dairy that have been used as a basic guidance to eat balanced and healthy meals.

Firstly, vegetables have essential nutrients that are needed to grow and stay healthy. For example, dark green vegetables like broccoli, spinach, and collard greens have calcium which the bodies need to grow strong bones. Carrots, sweet potatoes, bell peppers, squash, and beets have vitamin A which helps to protect and heal the bodies. Beans are also part of vegetable groups. They are good source of protein which is needed to build strong muscles including the heart. Humans should eat different vegetables in order to get different nutrients. Children should get about one-and-a-half cups of vegetables a day, including a small salad at lunch and vegetables at dinner.

Secondly, fruit is also an important part of a balanced meal. For instance, fresh apples, oranges, bananas, and other fruits are loaded with vitamins that are needed for healthy eyes and skin. The fruits also have nutrients that help the bodies to fight diseases. Fresh fruits and vegetables have fiber which the digestive system uses to stay healthy.  Children should have about a cup to a cup-and-a-half of fruit a day. They could have fruits with oatmeal in the morning and some grapes for a snack in the afternoon. Different colors of fruits and vegetables have different nutrients. Therefore, it is good to eat a variety of colorful fruits. Half plate for each meal should be made up of fruits and vegetables.

Thirdly, grains are also an important food group, such as bread, rice, pasta, oats, cereal, and tortillas are all parts of the grain groups. Most grains that are consumed should be whole grain which are more nutritious. White bread, white rice and sugary cereals are made with processed grains, which have lost of a lot of their nutrients. Grains contain carbohydrates which the bodies use for energy. They also contain a lot of fiber which is good for the digestive system. Children need about five ounces of grains a day, They could have half bagel for breakfast, a sandwich with multigrain bread for lunch, and a whole wheat pasta at dinner.

Fourthly, a balanced and healthy meal also has protein. The protein food group includes meats such as chicken, beef, and fish. It also includes eggs, nuts, beans, and tofu. Beans are part of both the protein and the vegetable groups. The bodies use protein to build muscles. Children need about four ounces of protein a day. They could have a piece of wheat toast with peanut butter in the morning, a salad with chicken at lunch and a small piece of fish at dinner. It is better to get the protein from different kinds of foods.

Lastly, dairy is another part of a balanced meal. For example, milk, soy milk, cheese and yogurt are all parts of the dairy group. Dairy foods have calcium which the bodies use to grow healthy bones, teeth and hair. Milk is a great source of vitamin D too which the bodies need in order to get calcium. Children should pick plain milk that is lower in fat, such as skim or 1% milk fat (1%M.F). Chocolate and strawberry milk are not good choices because they have tons of sugar. Children need about two-and-a-half ounces a dairy a day. They can have yogurt with fruit in the morning, small cartoon of milk at lunch and a little cheese at dinner. When children eat, take a look at the plate, because half plate should have fruits and vegetables with a bit more vegetables. The other half should have grains and protein with more grains. There should be some dairy too. It is better to explore foods from all the food groups so that you eat balanced meals and stay healthy.

The next topic is about the reasons why you should eat healthy foods.  This is because food is the fuel for the body. When we eat, our digestive system breaks down food and takes in nutrients. The body needs nutrients to grow and stay healthy. Milk, yogurt, cheese are high in calcium, which is a nutrient the body needs to build strong bones. Vegetables, nuts and beans have nutrients that help to keep eyes, skin and hair healthy. Some foods are not as nutritious or healthy as others such as junk food.

Junk food is food that has few nutrients and is high in fat, sugar or salt. Foods that are high in sugar can change the mood or how you feel. After eating sugary snacks, children might feel really hyper and have too much energy. But the mood can change quickly, and they can get tired or grumpy. Eating too many foods that are high in fat and salt can cause health problems later on. Therefore, it is important to remember about how much to eat from different food groups and keep up a balanced diet (fruits, grains, vegetables, protein and dairy).


 Then, it is essential to know how to choose a healthy breakfast, lunch and drink. After children wake up, their body needs fuel to begin the day. That’s why people say breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Doughnuts and pastries are high in fat and sugar and some cereals have a lot of sugar too. Bacon, sausage, and hash browns are greasy and have a lot of fat. They are not healthiest way to start your day. Instead, children can eat whole wheat toast or multigrain bagels which have a lot of fiber. They also can have fruits with yogurt, which is more nutritious than doughnuts. Eating a healthy breakfast can give them enough energy and keep them full until lunch.

It is also vital to choose a healthy lunch. For instance, pizza and hamburgers are pretty greasy and they have a lot of fat and salt. The salad has fresh vegetables which are nutritious, plus chicken which is lean, so it doesn’t have a lot of fat. That’s the healthiest choice. When children eat, choose food with fresh fruits and vegetables and whole grain breads instead of white bread. This is because whole grain breads are darker and they have more nutrients. Fruits are high in vitamins which the body uses to stay healthy. Potato chips and corn chips are fried, so they are high in salt and fat. If the chips are baked, they are lower in fat. But they are still a processed food and high in sodium. So, it is better to get unsalted mixed nuts as snacks for lunch. Nuts have protein which the body needs to build muscles.

Moreover, children should choose the healthiest drink. Juices might seem healthy but sometimes they can have a lot of added sugar and artificial colors, artificial flavors and preservatives. The sports drink sounds like a good choice, but it has weird stuff in the ingredients. A good rule is if you can’t pronounce it, then it is probably not the healthiest choice to eat or drink. Milk is nutritious but chocolate and strawberry milk have a ton of sugar. The healthiest choice is probably plain low fat milk or water.

In conclusion, the body needs healthy food and drink to stay healthy (see Figure 1.), so pay attention to what you eat or drink.


Figure 1. The Food Groups

References:

http://www.brainpopjr.com/the-food-groups


Where to focus to design food security enhancement program

by Yadav Sharma Bajagai


Today, developing countries are facing severe problem of household food and nutrition insecurity caused by multifaceted reasons ranging from low agricultural productivity, limited livelihood opportunities, inefficient food distribution system, weak market linkage, poor infrastructure and lack of awareness on healthy food and care habit. Demographic and Health Survey reports from these countries have shown that proportions of underweight children, prevalence of stunting among children and micro-nutrient deficiency in children, pregnant and nursing mothers are high and widespread. The situation is more severe in the countries affected by conflict and the countries in the transition.

Fortunately, many international development partners and the state governments are working together to fight against this problem and working through several global and national initiatives to attain objectives of Millennium Development Goal 1 by 2015. These initiatives address the growing food and nutrition insecurity emerged as a consequence of soaring food prices and impacts of global climate change among others.

In sustainably alleviating the food security and nutrition situations, it is important to address the issues associated with food availability at local level, access to adequate and safe food and its proper utilization.  The goal of sustainably enhancing food and nutrition security of the targeted communities can only be achieved by strengthening the entire agricultural value chain viz. improving the quality of seeds and animal breed, connecting farmers to local markets and encouraging crop diversity. Commercialization, diversification and quality enhancement of agriculture sector is very crucial in this context. Smart and strategic approach should be implemented to increase agricultural productivity, to decrease poverty through increased income base, to drive economic growth and to reduce under-nutrition among our children and our mothers. Moreover, the programs should be specific to particular geographical terrain, demography, climate, and other problems and opportunities of the countries and the region to be implemented. Therefore, sometimes "one size fit all" program formulated by so called expert without considering ground reality may not be suitable and sustainable in the local context of particular countries/region.

Similarly, generating awareness among vulnerable groups about appropriate food, health and care practices are equally important so that most vulnerable group of people, particularly pregnant and nursing mothers and children under 2 years of age get the appropriate nutrition they need to thrive. It is very essential to always focus the program to small and marginal farmers, poor and disadvantaged communities.

It is desirable to focus simultaneously on the short-term needs and problems to address the emergencies and longer-term solutions and strategies to get rid of the problem sustainably. Food-based nutritional approach is the most sustainable way to fight against the problem of under-nutrition we are facing today. So, in this context our policies and program should be strategic towards nutrition sensitive and sustainable agricultural development. There should be proper integration of agriculture and nutrition intervention which should also be reflected in government plan and policies.

Food security enhancement is so popular development agenda that most of the time there are multiple players on the same ground with same objectives. There is very urgent need for concerted and coordinated efforts within and across all organizations of these multiple players (government and non-government) to bring synergy and to achieve desired impacts on the ground. Development partners who are working for the same cause need a common vision with a coordinated approach.

Hence, we can fight against hunger together by making this a common cause of our time, a cause to feed our children, a cause to fight against one of the most significant development challenges; by specifically designing the program in the most effective way possible and implementing in the area and communities where it is most needed. 

This could be difficult but not impossible.


“Innovation of Food Technology as Import Substitution”: Dietary Recommendation for Normal and Autistic Children in Indonesia

by Maria P. Omega

There are differences among normal and autistic children in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn from experiences, to engage in various reasons, to overcome obstacles by taking thoughts and solutions. Therefore, the child’s intellectual performance is various depending on different occasions and criteria. For example, intelligence is attempts to organize the complex set of phenomena and systems of abilities which can be captured by standard psychometric tests (Neisser, et al., 1996). The psychometric approaches include the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (a childhood verbal intelligence) and Raven’s Progressive Matrices (a non-verbal inductive reasoning about perceptual patterns). Another psychometric analysis of Halstead-Reitan Categories test (a non-verbal abstract thinking ability) and Wechsler Memory Test used by Goodwin, et al. (1983) to analyze the worse scores of the result tests, due to depressed cognitive function caused by malnutrition and reduced nutrient intake of vitamin C, vitamin B12, riboflavin or folic acid. Moreover, inadequate childhood nutrition (low protein and high carbohydrate intakes) during brain development can have a strongly negative impact on long-term outcomes, such as decreased number of brain cells, deficits in behavior, learning and memory, lower verbal IQ at school age, higher incidence of frank cognitive and neuromotor impairment, developments of obesity, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes (Hay, et al., 1999).  Others emphasize on the primary roles of nature (inheritance of intelligence genes) and secondary roles of nurture (cultures, environments and nutrition influencing the acquisition of intellectual skills).

Therefore, the diet factor (nutritional needs) must be met by intake from the environment codified for Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) in America (Figure 1), Dietary Standards for Canada, Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) in Indonesia/other countries for safe intakes recommended by WHO (Williams-Hooker, 2013) as well as five main food groups in Australia such as fruit, vegetable, dairy, meat and meat alternatives, and cereals (Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2007).


Figure 1. 5-8 Year Olds Nutrition