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Mechanisms of Controlling Body Temperature in Animals

Major Mechanisms that Animals use to Control Body Temperature (Thermoregulatory Mechanisms in Animals)

by Yadav Sharma Bajagai

Major Impacts of climate change on animals are due to thermal stress resulting from increased ambient temperature. This article has been posted to illustrate how animals control their body temperature. This will help to find/design adaptation methods against climate change effects. 

The first line of defense animal use to maintain body temperature in unfavorable ambient temperature is behavioral response to manage heat loss or gain [1]. Seeking shelter in hot day or sun in cold day and altering body posture according to temperature to minimize or maximize relative body surface area to alter heat loss or gain are major behavioral response to maintain body temperature by cattle [1].

Animals can maintain its body temperature within narrow range irrespective of ambient temperature due to metabolic heat production [2, 3]. Control in heat production is mediated either with autonomic or voluntary thermoregulatory process.
 

Food Safety Regulation in Nepal

by Yadav Sharma Bajagai


1         Introduction

 

Being member of different international organizations, Nepal has many food safety related obligations to comply with rules and regulations of those organizations. Food safety related issues started to become matter of increased concern and one of the priority areas of the government after the country has become member of the world trade organization (WTO) in 2004.

Being a developing country, food chains are generally long in developing countries like Nepal as compared to those in developed countries due to poor infrastructure which makes the food more vulnerable to be contaminated with harmful agents (microorganism and chemicals). In addition, infrastructures related to technical regulation, conformity assessment and safety of food are still in developing phase which requires more focus and investment for better functioning. Similarly, Inspections and regulation of food related business are challenging and difficult due to scattered and large number of primary producers, traders and retailers. 

2         Legislations to regulate food safety

 

Regulation of the safety of food in Nepal began in 1966 by enforcing the food act by the government.  Although food safety regulation began as early as 1966, its importance was increased after 1990s due to increased economic liberalization and international trade. Traditionally, food safety related rules and regulations were basically based on inspecting and analysing end products to ensure safety of the food. But this approach has been increasingly replaced by total quality management i.e. ‘farm to fork’ approach which focuses on all level of production, processing, transportation and trading. Modern food safety related regulations and policies have been generally formulated following codex principles and guidelines focussing on preventive measures to produce safe food. Similarly, existing regulations and standards have also been reviewed to make them complying with codex standards wherever feasible according to national regulation and infrastructures. 

Emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) from Livestock Sector of Nepal

by Yadav Sharma Bajagai


Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPPC) has classified the sources of greenhouse gases into six major source categories (energy, industrial processes, solvent and other product use, agriculture, land-use change and forestry and waste) each of which has further been divided into several sub-categories. Livestock is one of the sub-groups of the sources of greenhouse gases under the agriculture group. Methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) from livestock manure management are two major greenhouse gases emitted from livestock sector.

Greenhouse gas inventory of the country from livestock sector has been prepared by using the Tier 1 emission estimation method of IPPC by using default emission factors for different categories of animals. The data has been assembled and analysed by using 2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories version 1.96. 

Livestock sector of Nepal is responsible to emit 12,295 Gg of CO2 equivalent annually which is 23% of total national gross GHGs emission per annum in terms of CO2 equivalent. Buffalo are the largest source of greenhouse gases (mainly CH4) followed by cattle. Livestock sector produces 583 Gg of CH4 and 0.2 Gg of N2O annually. Ninety percent of CH4 is from enteric fermentation and 10 % is from manure management while total amount of N2O is from manure management. Share of buffalo, cattle, goat, sheep, pig and equine (horses, asses, mules etc) to produce enteric CH4 are 51.9%, 38.5%, 8.8%, 0.2% and 0.1% emitting 270.9 Gg, 201.0 Gg, 45.9 Gg, 4.0 Gg, 1.1 Gg and 0.5 Gg of CH4 respectively per annum. Likewise, buffalo, cattle, poultry, pig, goat, sheep and equine are responsible for emitting 24.5 Gg (41.6%), 16.8 Gg (28.5%), 10.7 Gg (18.2%), 5.1 Gg (8.7%), 1.7 Gg (2.8%), 0.1 Gg (0.2%) and 0.04 Gg (0.1%) of CH4 from manure management.